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2016-06-14 15:23
刘亚维
黄瓜结瓜期涌现问题怎么办
 
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大棚黄瓜结瓜期,因受水肥、气温、光照的影响,经常表现出影响产量的各种症状。近期,菜农朋友反应黄瓜结瓜期涌现不良症状,现总结一下,并将解决办法予以介绍,供参考。 
    一、花打顶症花打顶即瓜打顶,瓜蔓生长点内缩,叶色黑绿,幼瓜上扬,高出生长点,生殖生长和营养生长同时受到障碍。这类蔓是一次佗胜施肥过多(尤其是氮肥)或喷农药量过大造成。管理上应采取三条办法:一是重浇一水,随水施入少量腐熟人粪尿;二是在生长点喷低浓度赤霉素;三是追肥,少量多次。 
    二、 瓜皮发黄症黄瓜处于结果茂盛期时,叶蔓大,生长快,产量高,但经常瓜皮发黄,下降了商品价值。瓜皮发黄是缺氮和缺铁所致,应采取的办法:一是亩施硫酸亚铁5公斤;二是叶面喷施多元素液体肥(含铁叶面肥),可使瓜皮由黄变绿。 
    三、缺瓜症秧蔓从上至下叶片黑绿厚大,直径达20厘米,茎粗,且瓜数很少,隔节一瓜或几节一瓜,产量大减。此症状是因为施氮素化肥过多,磷钾肥不足造成的。应采取的办法:一是在20天内不施或少施硝铵、碳铵、尿素等氮素化肥;二是立刻重施磷肥或磷酸二铵等复合肥,首次亩施20公斤,隔4—5天再施10—15公斤,10天后就会果实累累。 
    四、化瓜症化瓜即瓜繁而不长,幼瓜变黄发软,糜烂或自落。化瓜起因:一是有机基肥施入量少,氮肥不足,秧蔓营养不良;二是叶片感病,尤其是灰霉病,光合作用弱化;三是室内温渡过高,光合作用失调;四是根瓜及下部采摘不及时,营养不能重新分配;五是光照不足。总之,都是因营养供求失衡所致。对此症要重施氮素化肥。叶小蔓细的施硝铵可速使叶阔蔓壮;叶大而薄且发黄的施碳铵可速使叶色浓绿。防病要早,及时喷药;早揭晚盖草苫棚膜,谨防高温高湿伤秧;白天室温节制在24—28℃,不超过30℃,晚上节制在14—18℃;根瓜要早摘,成瓜花开端萎蔫时即摘,能够减少化瓜。 
    五、脆叶症叶色黑绿且干皱不平,叶缘下垂,指弹即破碎,瓜条小而少,是有机基肥施量过少,追肥单调所致。定植前应施入鸡粪、饼肥,追肥要化肥、人粪尿交替施用,喷叶面肥。 
    六、干叶症一是风灾,如3月份以前,气温风力变革大,如在通风口涌现中午叶片萎蔫,3天后褪绿干涸为风灾;二是热害,3月份以后,棚内温度高达40℃,中前部秧蔓中部叶片和离棚膜近处的叶片极易干涸;三是药害,喷药浓渡过大或用药不当可使秧蔓全体萎蔫。弥补办法是:不论何起因造成叶片萎蔫都应立刻在叶面上喷洒清水,或冲刷叶片,喷清水后3—5小时,再喷叶面肥,利于恢复叶片功能。

2016-06-02 17:03
刘丽君
棚室甜椒坐果率如何提高?
 
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春茬棚室甜椒在开花结果期常会遇到低温天气,导致棚室内甜椒花芽分化不良,落花落果现象严重,影响产量和收入。现介绍几种提高棚室甜椒坐果率的方法:   
    1、改善光照条件,提高温度   
    遇到阴雪低温天气时,可在棚室内增设补光灯,同时在后墙张挂反光幕,以增加棚内光照。清扫棚膜,提高棚膜的透光率。加强整枝打杈管理,去掉过多的枝叶,尤其是内膛枝叶,提高叶片和花蕾的见光率,减少养分消耗,从而提高坐果率。   
    2、降低棚内湿度   
    昆虫授粉甜椒在开花授粉期对湿度要求较为苛刻,遇到低温连阴天,棚室内的湿度过大,容易导致甜椒花粉发育不良,活性降低,不能正常完成授粉。在中午前后,根据天气情况,可放风降温排湿,尽可能降低棚室内的湿度。此外,在棚室内释放熊蜂,能够明显提高甜椒的坐果率。   
    3、喷施微肥和植物调节剂   
    硼是甜椒花芽分化的必需元素之一,缺硼往往容易导致花芽发育不良,为此在花前喷施含硼的液肥,可为植株补充营养,减少落花落果。喷施30-40毫克/公斤的萘乙酸溶液也可以起到很好的保花保果作用。  

2016-06-01 14:16
河北平乡县农业局
如何预防家兔的食毛症?
 
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家兔喜欢吃兔毛被称为食毛症。吃毛分自吃和它吃,以它吃为主。在群养时,当一只兔子吃毛,诱发其他家兔都来效仿,而往往是都集中先吃同一只兔。吃毛的主要原因是饲料中含硫氨基酸(蛋氨酸和胱氨酸)不足,忽冷忽热的气候是诱发因素,以断乳至3月龄的生长兔最易发病。 防治对于有食毛癖的家兔,应及时将患兔隔离,减少密度,并在饲料中补充0.1%~0.2%含硫氨基酸,添加石膏粉0.5%,硫磺1.5%,补充微量元素等,一般经过1周左右,即可停止食毛。

2016-05-31 16:23
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2016-05-28 14:01
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2016-05-26 16:02
曾令元
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2016-05-18 09:42
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2016-05-16 10:43
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2016-05-13 15:21
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2016-05-12 14:22
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潘泽义,男,安徽枞阳人,出生于1954年10月。1984年7月毕业于安徽农学院植保系植保专业。曾任安徽省农业科学院副院长、中共党员,研究员,享受国务院津贴。毕业后一直从事科学研究、农业科技成果推广、科技管理工作。

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